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The great roman physicist Galien, doctor to the gladiators, was convinced that the liver was transforming food into blood... until William Harvey, surgeon to the king of England, established in 1628 the major role of the heart in the blood flow system. In 1667, Jean-Baptiste Denis, doctor to Louis XIV, performed the first blood transfusion on a human being using veal's blood ! Due to the death toll generated by this technique, transfusion was slowly made illegal and bleeding remained the most widespread technique. It would take the death of George Washington, first American president, for this ancient technique to be outlawed. In September 1900, Karl Landsteiner, a young Austrian scientist, revealed for the first time the existence of three blood types-groups A, B and O. His discovery, which earned him the Nobel prize, was going to save millions of lives in the decades to come.